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 A sociological and political analysis of English as a medium of instruction in Turkish higher education
A sociological and political analysis of English as a medium of instruction in Turkish higher education
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of students, lecturers and graduates towards English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Turkish tertiary education system from sociological and political perspectives. As a basis for this, the study explored the diverse factors that have affected the use of EMI in Turkey. The research study combined quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedures. A questionnaire was conducted at six Turkish universities (three private and three public), obtaining data from 246 students, 72 lecturers and 45 graduates. Interviews were conducted with 18 students, 12 lecturers and six graduates, equal numbers from each university. Quantitative data results were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, while qualitative data was subjected to content analysis based on the principles set out by Gibson and Brown (2009). Findings suggest that while respondents expressed reservations about the use of EMI in the Turkish higher education system, there was unanimous acknowledgement of the importance of English as a linguistic asset due to the positive impact it might have on the social and economic lives of the respondents. Across all categories they generally agreed that English proficiency is beneficial for their future career and academic studies locally and internationally. Reservations about EMI were related to content comprehension issues arising from a lack of general English proficiency and competency. Students and lecturers complained about each other’s proficiency level when using English in the classroom, as it can lead to a lack of understanding. Students tended to be more positive towards the use of EMI when compared with lecturers and graduates. However, although lecturers had reservations towards EMI, they were slightly more inclined to favour the use of EMI in contrast with graduates. Graduates had the most reservations in regard to the implementation of EMI in the Turkish higher education system. The results further revealed that respondents across all categories were generally of the opinion that learning and teaching in English will have little or no impact on their Turkish culture, tradition and lifestyle, contradicting some previous studies and opinions. The differences between the attitudes, beliefs and perceptions towards EMI across the three respondent categories indicate there is scope for further research.
 An approach and its implementation for cloud computing security
An approach and its implementation for cloud computing security
With the increasing popularity of the datacenter provided by Cloud computing, the datacenter security is becoming an important issue. Also there are other issues to be concerned about such as its speed and standard, but data security is the biggest one. When an organization uses a remote datacenter provided by Cloud, it needs to maintain the confidentiality of the outsourced data and ensure only authorized user or client is allowed to access its data resource. In this paper, we investigate the security issue related to datacenter of cloud computing and propose a security approach for it. We use a formal logical method to specify the data and employ intelligent agents to enforce appropriate security rules on it. We outline the authentication mechanism and present a detailed authorization or access control approach. The implementation of the proposed approach will be discussed and investigated. The authentication and the authorization mechanisms work together to prevent any unauthorized attempt to data stored in the datacenter.
 An empirical investigation of the successful implementation of quality management in service organisations
An empirical investigation of the successful implementation of quality management in service organisations
Quality management (QM) is a holistic management philosophy that emphasises the involvement of every employee at different levels of an organization to achieve customer satisfaction and improve organizational effectiveness through continuous process improvement. There has been a rising interest among service sector professionals in examining the applicability and usefulness of quality management methods in service organisations. Many service organisations that have implemented quality management has achieved substantial benefits, but it is clear that implementation initiatives in some organisations have failed to live up to expectations. These mixed results point to a need to identify the factors that lie behind the success and failures of quality management programs. Empirical research in this area is extremely limited. The results of the study point to the importance of the role of employee support and encouragement of departmental co-operation for the successful implementation of quality management programs. These factors were found to be important not only initially, but also throughout the whole implementation period of QM programs. Another interesting finding is the relationship between QM success and implementation issues concerning internal organisational communication, corporate cultural change, and internal marketing. Significant differences exist in the way that each of these factors are practised and emphasised across organisations. Respondents rated the way in which they drew upon the culture, communication pattern and other behaviour to promote QM within the organisation. They also rated how important they thought these various activities were. It was found when these factors were emphasised in QM programs the chance of successful implementation was increased. Implications for quality management professionals and suggestions for further research are discussed
 Arab 2.0 revolutions : investigating social media networks during waves of the Egyptian political uprisings that occur between 2011, 2012 and 2013
Arab 2.0 revolutions : investigating social media networks during waves of the Egyptian political uprisings that occur between 2011, 2012 and 2013
Social media networks were at the centre of the dramatic events in 2011 events widely referred to as ‘the Arab Spring’ uprising or revolution. This thesis investigates the role of social media networks (such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube) in facilitating political mobilisation and the creation of a new Arab public sphere. The thesis asks whether the Arab Spring revolutions would have even happened in the absence of social media networks. The analysis will focus specifically on Egypt and how these networks acted as a catalyst and tool for mobilisation and how they shifted the balance of power between civilian activists and the authoritarian regime in the uprisings that occurred in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The primary research data reveals that social media networks have gone through four distinct phases: outrage and hope, instability and distrust, disinformation and criticism, and antagonism and hate. As these phases have been enacted during the three waves of social unrest in Egypt, networks have become a key player in generating and shifting power. This thesis draws on network theories of communication such as ‘the strength of weak ties’ (Granovetter 1973) and ‘communication power’ (Castells 2009). Castells proposes that social networks can be sites of ‘outrage and hope’ (2012) but in this thesis I argue that social media has developed into ‘networks of antagonism and hate’. This argument is made after an empirical analysis of the Facebook data sets of the liberals and Islamists which shows they have become sites of clashing ideologies. This thesis will also highlight the role other media played in the uprisings, such as Arab satellite channels such as Aljazeera, Hacktivists groups such as Anonymous and Telecomix and the whistle-blower website, WikiLeaks. The primary analysis of Facebook data sets identifies complex power dynamic between Islamists and liberals, who have both played dominant roles in the battle over information dissemination in their attempts to control society.
 Arendt’s political thought: the relationship between truth and politics
Arendt’s political thought: the relationship between truth and politics
In the scholarship on the thought of Hannah Arendt we find a recurrent view that she sees truth and politics as not just distinct but mutually exclusive phenomena. In this thesis I argue that this is not an adequate understanding of Arendt. It has been pointed out in the previous scholarship that Arendt asserts the importance of at least one kind of truth for politics, namely “truth of facts.” I argue that this view of the relationship between truth and politics is more complex than that. In Arendt’s writings we can see a sustained enquiry into the relationship between politics and truth, in which truth includes, but is more than, “truth of fact.” To demonstrate this, I proceed from the assumption that Arendt sees “thinking” as the vehicle of this relationship between truth and politics. Thus my investigation of Arendt’s conception of the relationship between truth and politics foregrounds an exploration of Arendt’s conception of thinking. As I indicated above, in Arendt we find a fascinating and provocative suggestion that thinking concerns “the quest for meaning.” Understood as such, thinking is not released from truth-seeking. Truth here is something other than fact, although it may need to be informed by fact. Truth-seeking in relation to meaning, for Arendt, loses any connection to definite results because it has to become adequate to what she calls plurality as well as to the need of humans to “reconcile themselves” to the world that they share with others. By providing a close textual analysis of five essays in which Arendt enquires into what is thinking, I will show that Arendt associates thinking, understood as the quest for meaning, with the willingness to express one’s doxa (or opinion), the willingness to think for oneself (selbstdenken), the willingness to engage in storytelling, the willingness to practise the dialogue of the “two-in-one,” the willingness to face up to reality and the related willingness to recognise and accept factual truth, and, finally, the willingness to assume personal responsibility for judgment. I suggest that the quest for meaning in all these different modes must involve “truthfulness” – truthfulness in the sense of an opening to the truth of what is disclosed. This kind of truth is neither irrefutable nor refutable – it belongs to the domain of significance and profoundly concerns human experience. It is not an “objective” truth that exists independently of humans. This truth is a phenomenological achievement that demands of humans that they actively engage in an unending process of discovering this truth and are willing to seek truth. An orientation to truth involved in the quest for meaning is expressed especially in the willingness to engage with “the fact of human plurality” – perhaps, for Arendt, the quintessential “fact.” For truthfulness requires of a thinker a willingness to articulate and maintain one’s own perspective on the world, which in turn demands an orientation towards others and recognising them as unique individuals.
 Chinese and Italian place brands in contemporary Sydney : assembling ethnicity and/in the city
Chinese and Italian place brands in contemporary Sydney : assembling ethnicity and/in the city
This thesis is based on an ethnographic study conducted in Sydney, Australia, to investigate the relations between ethnicity and the city filtered through the practice of place branding. I adopt a comparative case study that addresses the production and application of what I call ‘ethnic place brands’ to two precincts named Chinatown/Haymarket and Leichhardt (Little Italy), with the aim of dynamising the type of analysis proposed, for example, in the ‘immigrant economy’, ‘ethnic precinct’ and ‘urban tourism’ literatures, where ethnicity is often conceived as a quality contained within demarcated urban units and treated as a static essence that defines unchanging categories of collective identification. In contradistinction, this thesis argues that ‘ethnic place brands’ are complex assemblages that are put together in contingent and disaggregated processes of representation and identification defined by inherent tensions between the need to essentialise for marketing purposes and increasing degrees of cultural complexity. My work unfolds in two main parts. The first three chapters are dedicated to the overview of the emergence of ‘precincts’ as a point of departure for the analysis of the entanglements between culture, ethnicity and the city in global urban discourses and how they become visible in the Sydney context. ‘Ethnic place brands’, I argue, are social, cultural and economic constructs that increasingly drive revitalisation projects targeting some of these urban areas, where ‘difference’ has been reworked across a series of narratives spanning from ethnic marginalisation to ethno-specific service provision to end up becoming strategic points of competitive differentiation. By framing Chineseness and Italianness within this paradigmatic shift, this thesis proposes a theoretical framework for understanding ethnicity and/in the city, which takes into account the complex system of value production in which place branding practices are embedded, while respecting the multiplicity of discourses that frame the making of difference. Street ethnography is introduced in this context as a mobile, creative and selfreflexive method of inquiry that enables to ‘act’ on this complex phenomenon (Chapter Four). In the second part of the work I look at the brand management strategies for the two precincts that are the focus of my investigation to describe the way in which ethnicity can be understood beyond the limits of static representation. Chapter Five illustrates how Chineseness has become a ‘flexible’ brand for Chinatown/Haymarket, which incorporates different meanings into the production of a brand identity based on ambiguous articulations of ‘multi-Asianness’. These converge on a ‘flexible platform’ that makes bounded notions of Chinatown morph into the more spatially porous Haymarket. The production of Leichhardt’s brand, on the other hand, remains confined within ‘rigid’ representations of Italianness, which systematically disavow the increasingly complex fabric of the precinct; in Chapter Six I discuss how the continuing attempts to mobilise Italianness result into a series of competing and mutually exclusive conceptions of Little Italy contextualised by a narrative of decline. Lastly, in Chapter Seven, the role of the Chinese and Italian communities as integral parts of the two ‘ethnic place brands’ is considered. My argument is that ‘ethnic place brands’ shed light on the ‘ethnic community’ as a temporarily assembled network of stakeholders, defined by strategic positioning and instances of alignment or discord over the aims of the two brand management strategies. This thesis brings different levels of urban analysis in conversation with one another and replaces the essentialised and static conceptualisations of ethnicity that loosely circulate to advertise the specificity of ‘ethnic precincts’ with a more nuanced, description of place branding as an abstract, complex and networked process, which is less dependent on fixed conceptions of space and difference and more oriented towards the type of fluid relations by which ethnicity and the city are constantly reconfigured. I address ‘ethnic place brands’ as platforms of plural and contested meanings and treat them as instances that offer the opportunity to imagine what Amin and Thrift (2002) call ‘new sociospatial vocabularies’ based on the understanding of cities as spaces of heterogeneity and circulation.
 Power, conflict and sustainability in common pool resource tourist destinations
Power, conflict and sustainability in common pool resource tourist destinations
Emerging tourist destinations can be adversely impacted upon when industry stakeholders must share a natural resource with other groups with potentially conflicting aims. This issue draws attention towards the consequences of differences in resources and influence and the impact this has on the level of investment in infrastructure that will potentially support and grow a destination. Specifically, this paper seeks to provide empirical insights from the contemporary whale shark tourism industry of the World Heritage Area, Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. The objective of this paper is to consider the consequences of property rights in this setting as groups with conflicting aims negotiate the use of two depletable natural resources.
 Re-composing anime : drawing on the aesthetic qualities of anime to inform a folio of musical compositions
Re-composing anime : drawing on the aesthetic qualities of anime to inform a folio of musical compositions
This portfolio of compositions and written exegesis explores the way aesthetic characteristics of Japanese anime can inform contemporary musical composition. As a highly nuanced medium, anime presents as a collection of visual traits that depict the world from a unique perspective. These visual depictions of concepts, characters, locations, narratives, gestures and emotions are the creative impetus for me as a composer. My music responds to, rearticulates, explores, is informed by and influenced by anime. By watching anime and engaging with literature that analyses anime, my music explores anime from a number of perspectives. The musical gestures and choices I have made throughout the compositional process range from different forms of image-painting, story-painting and word-painting to more conceptual acknowledgements of the specific way anime depicts complex psychological issues such as sanity and sexuality. My music artistically expresses anime in a way no other form of research could. It also looks at anime as both an extension of Japanese art traditions and aesthetics as well as a 20th century technological development that exists in a global setting. To frame my approach to the compositions in the portfolio, I explore the complex relationship between music and representation. The concept that opens up this discussion is 'ekphrasis', the process by which one art form remediates another. When attached to music a continuum is created where the degree of representation can be gauged from suggestive programmatic music to a fully ekphrastic musical depiction of an existing artwork such as a painting, poem, sculpture or anime. The interplay between artforms and the mutability of expression through verbal, visual and aural iterations are at the core of my process as a composer. As an artist I am influenced by my own medium, music, but also in the way that other media articulate complex concepts. These articulations can be used by me and by other artists to inform the way we practice/create. In the instance of this folio, anime and music communicate abstractly and both are enhanced by the process.
 Sex after cancer : women renegotiating sex outside the coital imperative
Sex after cancer : women renegotiating sex outside the coital imperative
Cancer is the leading cause of burden of disease in Australia, with more than 100,000 new cases diagnosed each year (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2010). However, five-year survival currently stands at more than 60 percent (AIHW, 2010), which has led to an increasing body of survivorship research examining the profound and enduring impact that cancer can have upon quality of life (QoL) and embodied subjectivity, leaving “no aspect of identity untouched” (Little, Jordens, & Sayers, 2003, p. 76; Little & Sayers, 2004). Indeed it has been suggested that following cancer, an individual’s experience of embodied subjectivity as functional, intact, and “normal” can move to a state of “dys-embodiment” (Williams, 1996, p. 23), in which the body and self are experienced as dysfunctional, ill, and at odds with the desired presentation of the self (Kelly & Field, 1996). Sexual well-being is a central component of QoL and embodied subjectivity, and it is now recognized that changes to sexuality can be the most problematic aspect of women’s life post-cancer (Burwell, Case, Kaelin, & Avis, 2006), with the impact lasting for many years after successful treatment (Andersen, 2009, Bertero & Wilmoth, 2007) and often associated with serious physical and emotional side effects (Gilbert, Ussher, & Perz, 2010b; Gilbert, Ussher, & Perz, 2011). The purpose of this chapter is to draw on the findings of a recent research study to examine women’s experience and construction of sexual well-being and intimacy after cancer, the impact of such changes on embodied subjectivity, and women’s strategies of sexual renegotiation.
 Tetragonula carbonaria and disease : behavioural and antimicrobial defences used by colonies to limit brood pathogens
Tetragonula carbonaria and disease : behavioural and antimicrobial defences used by colonies to limit brood pathogens
The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is suffering heavily from the impacts from intensive management. Pests and diseases contribute to the population losses experienced globally. Brood disease is of concern for the apiculture industry because of the direct effects it has on population numbers and despite control measures; resistance to antibiotics and pesticides are common. Alternative pollinators such as stingless bees, including Tetragonula carbonaria, appear to be less impacted by brood diseases. However, there is very little information regarding why this is so. Prior to this study, there are only a few indications about a possible bacterial brood disease in Brazilian stingless bees (Kerr 1948, Nogueira-Neto 1997), with no follow up investigations, and no cases of brood disease losses in Australian stingless bees. As a result, this study presents information on the behavioural and antimicrobial defences of T. carbonaria colonies as mechanisms to limit the development of brood pathogens. In addition to these aims and objectives, this study also introduces and documents the first disease causing brood pathogen in Australian stingless bees. Therefore, the interaction of the defence mechanisms and the identified brood pathogen was also explored. Suitable nest conditions need to exist to sustain pathogen growth and development. Apis mellifera pathogens such as Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis utilise nest conditions, especially in the brood area for growth. The limited number of stingless bee pathogens may be related to brood temperature. Thermoregulation behaviour has been investigated in a number of stingless bee species; however, Australian studies are limited to Austroplebeia australis (Halcroft et al. 2013b) and greenhouse maintained T. carbonaria colonies (Amano et al. 2000, Amano 2004, A. Tse, pers. comm., 2011), with outcomes applied to their pollination servicing. This study (Chapter 2) investigated T. carbonaria thermoregulation behaviours during fluctuating ambient temperatures and the influence these have on brood production. Over the 13-month study, T. carbonaria was able to maintain brood temperatures between 15–31ºC, despite ambient temperatures ranging from 0–37°C. The recorded brood temperatures resulted in colonies maintaining yearlong brood development, which would suggest that this could provide a suitable resource for pathogen development year-round. However, pathogen occurrences are rare, it is speculated that the greater brood temperature range which is tolerated by colonies, is ultimately unsuitable for brood pathogen development, especially the lower winter temperatures.
 The taxation of the offshore oil industry
The taxation of the offshore oil industry
Until recent years the proportion contributed to total government revenue by the petroleum industry has continued to increase. However, Australia's oil reserves are now diminishing as known fields are consumed, and exploration efforts have failed to locate new sources of petroleum. The oil industry has called for the relaxation of the government take in order to encourage exploration activity for the replacement of reserves. In an environment of low world prices and continuing high levels of taxation it has been submitted that the balance between taxation and exploration incentives has tipped against exploration activity. The broader economic consequences of lower self sufficiency are significant, particularly in terms of the current account deficit and economic security. The most contentious form of government revenue is secondary taxation. These taxes are levied in addition to company income tax. The present Federal Government has introduced a Petroleum Resource Rent Tax to ensure the community, as a whole, gains an equitable share from the diminution of the country's scarce natural resources. Government discussion on tax reform has concentrated on the most appropriate form of secondary taxation without first examining whether there is, in fact, a case for the imposition of any secondary taxes. This paper addresses the impact of the range of taxes which apply to the petroleum industry. Particular attention is given to the alternate forms of secondary taxation and their effect on the industry in terms of the commonly used criteria for evaluating taxes. These criteria are : equity; efficiency and simplicity. Using this framework the various taxes are analysed individually. Beyond the oil industry the thesis will examine the broader economic effects of petroleum taxation policy, and review the political environment that gives rise to Government policy. From a business perspective, it is in the interests of the oil industry to minimise taxation because of its inverse relationship with profitability. In the light of this objective analysis, the thesis aims to determine the most appropriate form and level of taxation for the petroleum industry in Australia.

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